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YouTube is a way to get your videos to the people who matter to you. Upload, tag and share your videos worldwide!
总部地点： 美国加州圣布诺市（San Mateo ）
重要人物： 乍得·贺利（Chad Hurley），创办人及行政总裁 29岁
陈士骏（Steve Chen），创办人及技术执行长 27岁
口号： Broadcast Yourself.（播出自己）
YouTube成立于2005年2月，由乍得·贺利（Chad Hurley）、陈士骏（Steve Chen）、贾德·卡林姆（Jawed Karim）等3名PayPal前雇员创办。其创办原意是为了方便朋友之间分享录影片段，后来逐渐成为网民的回忆储存库和作品发布场所。在台湾出生的创办人之一陈士骏（Steve Chen）在2007年10月回到故乡，并宣布正式成立台湾中文版YouTube。
至2006年，YouTube已有4000万条短片，每天吸引600万人浏览；在成立后的短短15个月，已超越MSN Video与Google Video等竞争对手，成为本世纪最多人浏览的网站。
Google 有意收购网络影音分享网站YouTube 的消息，轰动网络世界。
目前担任YouTube 科技长的陈士骏 27 岁，在国三那年和家人一同移民美国，高中毕业后，就读于香槟伊利诺伊州大学计算机科学系，大学最后一学期时，他到在线收付款公司 PayPal 工作，协助拓展中国大陆业务，期间认识香槟伊大校友贺利（ Chad Hurley ）和卡林姆（ Jawed Karim ）。
YouTube 成立，有“老板背后的老板”之称的美国创投巨擘红衫集团慧眼押宝，助一臂之力。红衫的共同创办人里，有一位是来自中国大陆的张帆。今年 6 月，美国专业杂志 《Bussiness 2.0》 公布全球 50 大企业影响力人士，陈士骏排名第28 。
YouTube采用Sorenson Spark与Adobe Flash9提供之影像编码技术，将用户上传影像档案进行压缩转档。今日Youtube影片内容包罗万象，涵盖个人影片及电视节目片段，音乐录像带及家居录影等。YouTube影像品质远不如RealVideo与Windows Media等线上串流技术，但因低带宽需求并可简易地借由Flash Plug-in内嵌于个人的blog或其他网站中而迅速取得压倒性的知名度与成功。有研究与投资公司决策高层指出YouTube的网站流量需求极高，甚至每月需要付大约100万美金的费用，在2006年3月，YouTube开始在网站卖广告。
该网站的视频的播放也是通过Flash技术实现的。Adobe也正在通过这一系列技术，从苹果(Quicktime)、微软(Windows Media)以及Real(Real Media)等在线多媒体内容发布解决方案提供商手中抢夺更多的市场份额。并且希望在互联网上更多地体现其影响力。近期几个重要的事件就部分地可以说明其这一意图：
服务器端的核心 Macromedia Flash Communication Server 更名为 Macromedia Flash Media Server。
推出 Macromedia Flash Media Server 2, 支持CDN, 以及更加强大的Flash视频播放功能(Flash Video Streaming Service)。
Flex 2.0 Beta 2 发布，相关环境也越来越完善。
YouTube自成立以来，其短片曾被不少机构和公司批评为侵犯版权，如Saturday Night Live broadcast、NBC Universal、Family Guy videos owners、Turner Media、Sunrise等。被指为侵权的短片在版权持有人要求下，YouTube亦会将之删除。 2007年3月，美国媒体公司Viacom向法院提交了诉状，起诉Youtube及其母公司Google侵犯其作品版权，并要求10亿美元的赔偿。
2006年8月11日至19日，英国极右派团体在YouTube张贴数段恐吓影片，模仿伊斯兰教激进份子“殉道烈士”录像带，每段影片的长度是2－3分钟。影片内容是一群白人男性荷--实弹，手持刀刃棍棒，仿效恐怖份子蒙面装扮，警告所有穆斯林马上离开英国。影片中，一名操威尔士口音的男子警告英国穆斯林若不“回家”就会被活活烧死，并说全英国已有许多“--”受够了穆斯林。英国伊斯兰人权委员会执行长Massoud Shadjareh说，这些影片的出现相当令他忧心。英国反法西斯主义杂志《探照灯》发行人Gerry Gable谴责YouTube容许这类提倡恐怖主义的影片存在。
2006年6月1日，英国独立电视台（ITV）批评YouTube及近似的网站鼓吹--，因为这些网站上传了由手机拍摄的打斗影片。虽然YouTube禁止过份--和--的影片，但 ITV 指与这些网站沟通时有一定困难。
国家／地区 网址 语言 上线时间
全球 （美国） http://www.youtube.com 美国英语 2005年2月15日
英国 http://uk.youtube.com/ 英国英语 2007年6月19日
巴西 http://br.youtube.com/ 葡萄牙语 2007年6月19日
法国 http://fr.youtube.com/ 法语 2007年6月19日
爱尔兰 http://ie.youtube.com/ 爱尔兰英语 2007年6月19日
意大利 http://it.youtube.com/ 意大利语 2007年6月19日
日本 http://jp.youtube.com/ 日语 2007年6月19日
荷兰 http://nl.youtube.com/ 荷兰语 2007年6月19日
波兰 http://pl.youtube.com/ 波兰语 2007年6月19日
西班牙 http://es.youtube.com/ 西班牙语 2007年6月19日
墨西哥 http://mx.youtube.com/ 西班牙语 2007年10月10日
中国香港 http://hk.youtube.com/ 繁体中文 2007年10月17日
中国台湾 http://tw.youtube.com/ 繁体中文 2007年10月18日
新西兰 http://nz.youtube.com/ 新西兰英语 2007年10月22日
澳大利亚 http://au.youtube.com/ 澳洲英语 2007年10月22日
加拿大 http://ca.youtube.com/ 加拿大英语 2007年11月6日
德国 http://de.youtube.com/ 德语 2007年11月8日
俄罗斯 http://ru.youtube.com/ 俄罗斯语 2007年11月13日
YouTube is a video sharing website on which users can upload and share videos. Three former PayPal employees created YouTube in February 2005. In November 2006, YouTube, LLC was bought by Google Inc. for $1.65 billion, and is now operated as a subsidiary of Google.
The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos. Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, the BBC, UMG and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.
Unregistered users can watch the videos, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos that are considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users over the age of 18. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, copyright violations, and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited by YouTube's terms of service. Accounts of registered users are called "channels."
Main article: History of YouTube
YouTube's current headquarters in San Bruno, California.YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.Hurley studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, while Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Chad Hurley and Steve Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Jawed Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, and Chad Hurley commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible."
YouTube began as a venture-funded technology startup, primarily fro m a US$11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.The domain name was activated on February 15, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.The first YouTube video was entitled Me at the zoo, and shows founder Jawed Karim at San Diego Zoo.The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.
YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005, six months before the official launch in November 2005. The site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43 percent and more than six billion videos viewed in January 2009.It is estimated that 20 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, and that around three quarters of the material comes fro m outside the United States. It is also estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.In March 2008, YouTube's bandwidth costs were estimated at approximately US$1 million a day.Alexa ranks YouTube as the third most visited website on the Internet, behind Yahoo! and Google.
The choice of the domain name led to problems for a similarly named website, The owner of the site, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being overloaded on a regular basis by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to http://www.utubeonline.com/
In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for US$1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008 a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at US$200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.
In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment and CBS which will allow the companies to post full-length films and television shows on the site, accompanied by advertisements. The move is intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material fro m NBC, Fox, and Disney.
Before the launch of YouTube in 2005, there were few simple methods available for ordinary computer users who wanted to post videos online. With its easy to use interface, YouTube made it possible for anyone who could use a computer to post a video that millions of people could watch within a few minutes. The wide range of topics covered by YouTube has turned video sharing into one of the most important parts of Internet culture.
An early example of the social impact of YouTube was the success of the Bus Uncle video in 2006. It shows an animated conversation between a youth and an older man on a bus in Hong Kong, and was discussed widely in the mainstream media. Another YouTube video to receive extensive coverage is guitar, which features a performance of Pachelbel's Canon on an electric guitar. The name of the performer is not given in the video, and after it received millions of views The New York Times revealed the identity of the guitarist as Jeong-Hyun Lim, a 23-year-old fro m South Korea who had recorded the track in his bedroom.
YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award and cited for being "a 'Speakers' Corner' that both embodies and promotes democracy."
YouTube has been criticized frequently for failing to ensure that its online content adheres to the law of copyright. At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a screen with the following message:
Do not upload any TV shows, music videos, music concerts or commercials without permission unless they consist entirely of content you created yourself. The Copyright Tips page and the Community Guidelines can help you determine whether your video infringes someone else's copyright.
Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips fro m television shows, films and music videos on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a takedown notice under the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Organizations including Viacom and the English Premier League have issued lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material. Viacom, demanding US$1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". Since Viacom issued its lawsuit, YouTube has introduced a system called Video ID, which checks uploaded videos against a database of copyrighted content with the aim of reducing violations.
In August 2008, a U.S. court ruled that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz fro m Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy" and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.
In July 2008, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The move led to concerns that the viewing habits of individual users could be identified through a combination of their IP addresses and login names. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a set-back to privacy rights". U.S. District Court Judge Louis Stanton dismissed the privacy concerns as "speculative", and ordered YouTube to hand over documents totalling around 12 terabytes of data. Judge Stanton rejected Viacom's request for YouTube to hand over the source code of its search engine system, saying that there was no evidence that YouTube treated videos infringing copyright differently.
YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. Although YouTube's terms of service forbid the uploading of material likely to be considered inappropriate, the inability to check all videos before they go online means that occasional lapses are inevitable. Controversial areas for videos have included Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough Disaster, in which 96 football fans fro m Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989, conspiracy theories and religion.
YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a member of staff will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's terms of service. In July 2008 the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "Proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user generated content." YouTube responded by stating: "We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link fro m every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly."
Main article: Blocking of YouTube
Several countries have blocked access to YouTube since its inception, including China,Morocco, and Thailand. YouTube is currently blocked in Turkey after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.Despite the block, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo?an admitted to journalists that he could access YouTube, since the site is still available in Turkey by using an open proxy.
On December 3, 2006, Iran temporarily blocked access to YouTube, along with several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conducts. The YouTube ban came after a video was posted online that appears to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.The block was later lifted and then reinstated after 2009 presidential election.
On February 23, 2008, Pakistan blocked YouTube due to "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of the prophet Muhammad. This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. Pakistan lifted its block on February 26, 2008.Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.
Schools in some countries have blocked access to YouTube due to students uploading videos of bullying behavior, school fights, racist behavior, and other inappropriate content.
Comparison of normal, high, and HD quality YouTube videos played in YouTube and their native resolution.
YouTube's video playback technology for web users is based on the Adobe Flash Player. This allows the site to display videos with quality comparable to more established video playback technologies (such as Windows Media Player, QuickTime, and RealPlayer) that generally require the user to download and install a web browser plug-in in order to view video.Viewing Flash video also requires a plug-in, but market research fro m Adobe Systems has found that its Flash plug-in is installed on over 95% of personal computers.
Videos uploaded to YouTube are limited to ten minutes in length and a file size of 2 GB.When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible for any user to upload videos longer than ten minutes, but YouTube's help section now states: "You can no longer upload videos longer than ten minutes regardless of what type of account you have. Users who had previously been allowed to upload longer content still retain this ability, so you may occasionally see videos that are longer than ten minutes." The ten minute limit was introduced in March 2006, after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.
YouTube accepts videos uploaded in most formats, including .WMV, .AVI, .MKV, .MOV, MPEG, .MP4, DivX, .FLV, and .OGG. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded directly fro m a mobile phone.
YouTube originally offered videos in only one format, but it now has three main formats, as well as a "mobile" format, for viewing on mobile phones. The original format, now labeled "standard quality", displays videos at a resolution of 320x240 using the Sorenson Spark codec, with mono MP3 audio. This was, at the time, the standard for streaming online videos.
"High quality" videos, introduced in March 2008, are shown at up to 864x480 with stereo AAC sound.This offers a significant improvement over standard quality. This was followed up in November 2008 by 720p HD support. At the same time, the YouTube player was changed fro m a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio. 720p videos are shown in full 1280x720 and encoded with the H.264 codec. They also feature stereo audio encoded with AAC.
One of the key features of YouTube is the ability of users to view its videos on web pages outside the site. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML, which can be used to embed it on a page outside the YouTube website. This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs.
Some mobile phones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, dependent on the provider and the data plan. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, and uses RTSP streaming for the video. Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.
Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV and the iPhone.A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.
Download In YouTube
YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends that they are viewed through its website interface.A small number of videos, such as the weekly addresses by President Barack Obama, can be downloaded as MP4 files.There are also third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins that offer a way to get a download link for all videos on the website.
In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.
Plans for YouTube to create a local version in Turkey have run into problems, since the Turkish authorities asked YouTube to set up an office in Turkey, which would be subject to Turkish law. YouTube says that it has no intention of doing this, and that its videos are not subject to Turkish law. Turkish authorities have expressed concerns that YouTube has been used to post videos insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.
In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the Performing Rights Society led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The Music Publishers' Association described the decision as "particularly disappointing". In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.
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